Major Inflammatory Markers and Their Significance in Predicting Severity of COVID-19 Disease Pattern

Abdullah I. Aedh, Ali Hadi Al Hajri, Abdulaziz S. Alshahrani, Mohammed A. Adam, Abubaker Alsiddig Dahab, Asaad M. A. Babker, Hatem Mohamed

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2021;11(4):488-492.
DOI: 10.21103/Article11(4)_OA13
Originally published December 10, 2021


The unanticipated outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has shocked the world in terms of both lives and livelihood. SARS-CoV-2 virus primarily affects the respiratory system, although other organ systems are also involved. Early diagnosis followed up by a retrospective analysis and tracking of a few markers relevant to the immunological status of the individual may aid in determining the state of the patient's disease prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunological parameters such as neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer, taking into account the patient's age and oxygen saturation level.
Our retrospective analysis of clinical data revealed that such parameters as CRP, D-dimer, and NLR should be taken into consideration to predict severe COVID-19-related complications. The data obtained indicate that patients over age 60 are especially vulnerable to severe COVID-19.

COVID-19 • neutrophilia • D-dimer • C-reactive protein
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Received September 13, 2021.
Accepted October 10, 2021.
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