Socio-Demographic Factors and Epidemiological Characteristics of HIV-Positive Pregnant Women with High Risk of Vertical Transmission of the Immunodeficiency Virus

Anastasiya S. Vanyarkina, Alla G. Petrova, Lyubov V. Rychkova, Ekaterina V. Moskaleva, Evgeniya A. Novikova

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2021;11(4):564-569.
DOI: 10.21103/Article11(4)_OA27
Originally published December 10, 2021


The purpose of this study was to determine the features of the course of pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period in HIV-positive women with a high risk of HIV vertical transmission.
Methods and Results: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study of mother-child pairs for the period from 2017 to 2019 was conducted in the Irkutsk City Perinatal Center (level III). The clinical observation group included HIV-positive women (n=213) and their newborn children with a high risk of perinatal immunodeficiency virus transmission (n=214). The findings of the conducted study demonstrated that most HIV-seropositive women with a high risk of HIV vertical transmission had an aggravated social history, a high prevalence of pelvic inflammatory diseases, and a high incidence of opportunistic and AIDS-defining conditions. Evaluation of PMTCT preventive complex showed that the target parameters in women with a high risk of HIV transmission were not reached: the first stage was performed for 49.3% of pregnant women with good ART adherence, the second stage – for 97.1% of obstetric patients, the third stage – in 100% of HIV perinatally exposed children. HIV RNA was detected in 3.7% of children, which evidences their antenatal infection.
Conclusion: Development of efficient communication with HIV-positive women aimed at preservation of their health and decrease of logistic barriers to access to medical care.

HIV infection • pregnancy outcomes • vertical transmission • retrospective study
  1. [Express information on the epidemic situation of HIV infection as of 01.01.2020 in the Irkutsk Region]. Available from:
  2. Leshchenko OYa, Genich EV. [Reproductive disorders and their pathogenetic mechanisms in women with HIV]. HIV Infection and Immunosuppressive Disorders. 2019;11(4):20-29. doi: 10.22328/2077-9828-2019-11-4-20-29. [Article in Russian]
  3. Shugaeva SN, Savilov ED, Koshkina OG, Suzdalnitskiy AE, Chemezova NN. [Features of epidemic process of tuberculosis in the territory with high prevalence of HIV infection]. Acta Biomedica Scientifica. 2019;4(5):73-78. doi: 10.29413/ABS.2019-4.5.12. [Article in Russian]
  4. Bayanova TA, Kudryavtseva DP, Plotnikova YuK, Botvinkin AD. [The change in the incidence of some herpes virus infections in population with a high prevalence of HIV infection]. HIV Infection and Immunosuppressive Disorders. 2019;11(3):75-84. doi: 10.22328/2077-9828-2019-11-3-75-84. [Article in Russian]
  5. Bärnighausen T, Hosegood V, Timaeus IM, Newell ML. The socioeconomic determinants of HIV incidence: evidence from a longitudinal, population-based study in rural South Africa. AIDS. 2007 Nov;21 Suppl 7(Suppl 7):S29-38. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000300533.59483.95. 
  6. Harling G, Bärnighausen T. The role of partners' educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016 Feb 19;19(1):20038. doi: 10.7448/IAS.19.1.20038.
  7. Petrovа AG. [Perinatal HIV infection]. Irkutsk: ISCST;2020. [Book in Russian]
  8. Leonova ON, Stepanova EV, Belyakov NA. [Severe and comorbid conditions in HIV patients: An analysis of adverse outcomes]. HIV Infection and Immunosuppressive Disorders. 2017;9(1):55-64. doi: 10.22328/2077-9828-2017-9-1-55-64. [Article in Russian]
  9. Yastrebova EB, Samarina AV, Fertikh EK, Gutova LV. [Pediatric problems of HIV infection and solutions in Saint Petersburg]. HIV Infection and Immunosuppressive Disorders. 2019;11(1):31-37. doi: 10.22328/2077-9828-2019-11-1-31-37. [Article in Russian]
  10. Kravchenko EN, Yakovleva OA, Kuklina LV. [Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of preterm labor women living with HIV]. HIV Infection and Immunosuppressive Disorders. 2019;11(3):16-22. doi: 10.22328/2077-9828-2019-11-3-16-22. [Article in Russian]
  11. Balashova TN, Isurina GL, Skitnevskaya LV, Bard D, Tsvetkova LA, Volkova EN, et al. Study of alcohol consumption by pregnant and non-pregnant women in Russia. Acta Biomedica Scientifica. 2018;3(3):59-68. doi: 10.29413/ABS.2018-3.3.9.
  12. Pineles BL, Park E, Samet JM. Systematic review and meta-analysis of miscarriage and maternal exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(7):807-823. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt334
  13. Shirley DK, Kaner RJ, Glesby MJ. Effects of smoking on non-AIDS-related morbidity in HIV-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(2):275-282. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit207
  14. Chursina OA, Konstantinova OD, Kshnyaseva SK, Mazurovskaya OP. [Influence of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on the fetoplaceltal system and health of newborns]. Gynecology, Obstetrics and Perinatology. 2019;18(5):66-72. doi: 10.20953/1726-1678-2019-5-66-72. [Article in Russian]
  15. Savchenko GN, Koltsova OV. [Hardiness training for HIV-infected women]. HIV Infection and Immunosuppressive Disorders. 2020;12(3):111-119. doi: 10.22328/2077-9828-2020-12-3-111-119. [Article in Russian]
  16. Maryanyan AYu, Slepchenko VV, Rashidova MA, Podkameneva TV, Kolesnikova LI. [Current ideas about the specific features of vaginal microbiocenosis in HIV-positive women of reproductive age]. Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya. 2019;(12):12-17. doi: 10.18565/aig.2019.12.12-17. [Article in Russian]
  17. Gafurov YuT, Sundukov AV. [Clinico-laboratory specificities of the course of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs in HIV-infected patients]. Gynecology, Obstetrics and Perinatology. 2015;14(1):64-68. [Article in Russian]
  18. Leshchenko OYa, Genich EV, Darenskaya MA, Kolesnikova LI. [HIV and infertility: Neuro-endocrine and metabolic aspects]. HIV Infection and Immunosuppressive Disorders. 2020;12(4):73-80. doi: 10.22328/2077-9828-2020-12-4-73-80. [Article in Russian]
  19. Belyaeva E, Genich E, Leshchenko O. The Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among HIV-Infected Women Planning Pregnancy in Irkutsk, Russia. International Journal of Biomedicine. 2021;11(3):346-350. doi:10.21103/Article11(3)_OA11
  20. Рembrey L, Newell ML, Tovo PA; EPHN Collaborators. The management of HCV infected pregnant women and their children European paediatric HCV network. J Hepatol. 2005;43(3):515-525. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2005.06.002
  21. Kolesnikova LI, Kolesnikov SI, Darenskaya MA, Grebenkina LA, Timofeeva E, Leshenko OYa, et al. Menstrual and reproductive function in women with HIV-infection and antioxidant vitamins deficiency. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5(12):1-5. doi: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000382
  22. Mandelbrot L, Tubiana R, Le Chenedec J, Dollfus C, Faye A, Pannier E, et al. No perinatal HIV-1 transmission from women with effective antiretroviral therapy starting before conception. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(11):1715-1725. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ578

Download Article
Received October 3, 2021.
Accepted November 9, 2021.
©2021 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.