Serum Level of Il-2 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontopathy

V. Bunjaku, M. Popovska, S. Spasovski, A. Spasovska-Gjorgovska, M. Barani, Sh. Mrasori

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2022;12(4):611-616.
DOI: 10.21103/Article12(4)_OA16
Originally published December 5, 2022


The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic periodontopathy (ChP) on serum levels of IL-2.
Methods and Results: A total of 80 patients aged 35-60 years were followed; all of them had T2DM diagnosed (HbA1C≤7.5%) with ChP, where clinical attachment loss (CAL) was ≥4mm on at least 50% of affected teeth. All participants are divided into two groups. Group A included 40 patients who underwent conservative (non-surgical) periodontal treatment supplemented with LLLT. Group B included 40 patients who underwent only conservative therapy. Patients used oral antidiabetic medications to control glycemia: Metformin (Alkaloid, Skopje S. Macedonia) 500 mg two times a day. LLLT (Laser HF® comfort, Hager. Werken, Duisburg, Germany) was applied (660 nm, 10 mW, 8 min/day) with contact to the gingiva for five consecutive days. Serum IL-2 was determined by ELISA in 3 time intervals: at the first examination, 6 weeks, and 3 months after treatment in both groups. In Group A and Group B, at the first examination, 6 weeks after therapy, and 3 months after treatment, the serum IL-2 was 17.20±0.54 pg/ml and 17.22±0.66 pg/ml, 17.12±0.63 pg/ml and 17.17±0.63 pg/ml, and 17.03±0.64 pg/ml and 16.98±0.65 pg/ml, respectively. 
In Group A, there was a significant difference between the serum IL-2 values in specified time points (first examination, 6 weeks, and 3 months after the therapy) (Friedman’s ANOVA: χ² (n=40, df=2) = 17.22 and P=0.0002). In Group B, between the serum IL-2 levels, there also was a significant difference in specified time points (Friedman’s ANOVA: χ² (n=40, df=2) = 42.33 and P=0.0000). The intergroup analysis, according to the temporal dynamics of the measurements, showed an evident difference between the two groups, but the serum IL-2 values in the two groups treated with and without LLLT were close, and no statistical significance was recorded between them.
Conclusion: No significant differences were recorded in the serum IL-2 levels in T2DM patients with ChP non-surgically treated with and without the application of LLLT.

chronic periodontopathy • type 2 diabetes mellitus • IL-2 • low-level laser therapy

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Received October 14, 2022.
Accepted November 15, 2022.
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