Non-Drug Treatment Today

Alexander V. Karnitsky

Omsk State Medical Academy, Omsk, Russian Federation

*Corresponding author: Alexander V. Karnitsky, PhD, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Omsk State Medical Academy. 1, Leningradskaya sq., apt. 102, 644010, Omsk, Russian Federation Tel: 7-905-9424103. Fax: 7-3812-659727


The 20th century was characterized by great strides in medication treatment; however, its significance has not been lost and, in fact, has seen further development of non-drug treatment (NDT). Medical rehabilitation (MR) is based on NDT, which includes exercise therapy, massage, physiotherapy, dietary therapy, health-resort treatment, etc. This study discusses the advantages of the various types of NDT, including the possibilities of their application in the most common diseases.

rehabilitation; therapy; health.
  1. Bogolyoubov VM, editor. Medical rehabilitation. Moscow: BINOM; 2010. [in Russian]
  2. Gottlieb BH, Bergen AE. Social support concepts and measures. J Psychosom Res 2010; 69:511-20. 
  3. Kuoppala J, Lamminpää A. Rehabilitation and work ability: a systematic literature review. J Rehabil Med 2008; 40:796-804.
  4. Chamberlain MA, Fialka Moser V, Schüldt Ekholm K, O'Connor RJ, Herceg M, Ekholm J. Vocational rehabilitation: an educational review. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41:856-69.
  5. Collin C. Medical rehabilitation. Clin Med 2011;11:6-7.
  6. Kobelt A, Winkler M, Petermann F. Preparation for and care after medical rehabilitation using the example of psychosomatic rehabilitation. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2011; 54:451-7. [in German]
  7. Söderberg EI, Carlsson JY, Stener-Victorin E, Dahlöf C. Subjective well-being in patients with chronic tension-type headache: effect of acupuncture, physical training, and relaxation training. Clin J Pain 2011; 27:448-56.
  8. Forestier R, André-Vert J, Guillez P, Coudeyre E, Lefevre-Colau MM, Combe B et al. Non-drug treatment (excluding surgery) in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical practice guidelines. Joint Bone Spine 2009; 76:691-8.
  9. Tabet JY, Meurin P, Driss AB, Weber H, Renaud N, Grosdemouge A, et al. Benefits of exercise training in chronic heart failure. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2009; 102:721-30.
  10. Kemi OJ, Wisloff U. High-intensity aerobic exercise training improves the heart in health and disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2010; 30:2-11.
  11. Valkenet K, van de Port IG, Dronkers JJ, de Vries WR, Lindeman E, Backx FJ. The effects of preoperative exercise therapy on postoperative outcome: a systematic review. Clin  Rehabil 2011; 25:99-111.
  12. Troosters T, Gosselink R, Janssens W, Decramer M. Exercise training and pulmonary rehabilitation: new insights and remaining challenges. Eur Respir Rev 2010; 115:24-9.
  13. Beavers KM, Brinkley TE, Nicklas BJ. Effect of exercise training on chronic inflammation. Clin Chim Acta 2010; 411:785-93.
  14. Herring MP, O'Connor PJ, Dishman RK. The effect of exercise training on anxiety symptoms among patients: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170:321-31.
  15. Kujala UM. Evidence on the effects of exercise therapy in the treatment of chronic disease. Br J Sports Med 2009; 43:550-5.
  16. Harris M, Richards KC. The physiological and psychological effects of slow-stroke back massage and hand massage on relaxation in older people. J Clin Nurs 2010; 19:917-26.
  17. Dryden T, Baskwill A, Preyde M. Massage therapy for the orthopaedic patient: a review. Orthop Nurs 2004; 23:327-32.
  18. Furlan AD, Imamura M, Dryden T, Irvin E. Massage for low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 4:CD001929.
  19. Beider S, Mahrer NE, Gold JI. Pediatric massage therapy: an overview for clinicians. Pediatr Clin North Am 2007; 54:1025-41.
  20. Bogolyoubov VM, editor. Physiotherapy and balneology. Moscow: BINOM; 2009. [in Russian]
  21. Airapetova NS, Rassulova MA, Ksenofontova IV, Nitchenko OV, Gosn LD, Polikanova EB, et al. Sylvinite speleotherapy in medical rehabilitation of patients with pathology of respiratory system. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2008; 3:52-4. [in Russian]
  22. Białoszewski D, Wasiluk K. Effectiveness of spa treatment of osteoarthritis. Review of literature. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2010; 12:109-19.
  23. Françon A, Forestier R. Spa therapy in rheumatology. Indications based on the clinical guidelines of the French National Authority for health and the European League Against Rheumatism, and the results of 19 randomized clinical trials. Bull Acad Natl Med 2009; 193:1345-56. [in French]
  24. Kalista-Richards M. The kidney: medical nutrition therapy--yesterday and today. Nutr Clin Pract 2011; 26:143-50.
  25. Troyer JL, McAuley WJ, McCutcheon ME. Cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy and therapeutically designed meals for older adults with cardiovascular disease. J Am Diet Assoc 2010;110:1840-51.
  26. Barclay A, Gilbertson H, Marsh K, Smart C. Dietary management in diabetes. Aust Fam Physician  2010; 39:579-83.
  27. Klek S, Szybinski P, Sierzega M, Szczepanek K, Sumlet M, Kupiec M, et al. Commercial enteral formulas and nutrition support teams improve the outcome of home enteral tube feeding. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011; 35:380-5.
  28. Serón-Arbeloa C, Puzo-Foncillas J, Garcés-Gimenez T, Escós-Orta J, Labarta-Monzón L, Lander-Azcona A. A retrospective study about the influence of early nutritional support on mortality and nosocomial infection in the critical care setting.  Clin Nutr 2011; 30:346-50.
  29. Reeves GR, Whellan DJ. Recent advances in cardiac rehabilitation. Curr Opin Cardiol 2010; 25:589-96.
  30. Kones R. Is prevention a fantasy, or the future of medicine? A panoramic view of recent data, status, and direction in cardiovascular prevention. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 5:61-81.
  31. Pauwels EK. The protective effect of the Mediterranean diet: focus on cancer and cardiovascular risk. Med Princ Pract 2011; 20:103-11.
  32. Fagard RH. Exercise therapy in hypertensive cardiovascular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 53:404-11.
  33. Lamina S. Effects of continuous and interval training programs in the management of hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2010; 12:841-9.
  34. Church T. Exercise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 53:412-8.
  35. Barczok M. Physical exercise is essential for COPD-patients. MMW Fortschr Med 2010; 152:45-6. [in German]
  36. Fitting JW.  New perspectives for respiratory rehabilitation in COPD. Rev Med Suisse 2010; 272:2233-6, 2238-9. [ in French]
  37. De Backer LA, Ides K, Daems D, Dieriks B, De Backer WA, Germonpre P. Pulmonary rehabilitation and non-invasive ventilation in COPD. Acta Clin Belg 2010; 65:330-5.
  38. Nakamura M, Ishizaka A. Home oxygen therapy. Nippon Rinsho 2007; 65:713 [Article in Japanese]
  39. Langhorne P, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G. Stroke rehabilitation. Lancet 2011; 377:1693-702.
  40. Glanz M, Klawansky S, Chalmers T. Biofeedback therapy in stroke rehabilitation: a review. J R Soc Med 1997; 90:33-9.
  41. Petrushevichene DP, Krishchiunas AI, Savitskas RIu. Factors influencing the effectiveness of ergotherapy in the early rehabilitation stage in patients with cerebral stroke. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2007; Suppl 21:65-70. [in Russian]
  42. Hornby TG, Campbell DD, Kahn JH, Demott T, Moore JL, Roth HR. Enhanced gait-related improvements after therapist- versus robotic-assisted locomotor training in subjects with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled study. Stroke 2008; 39:1786-92.
  43. Hidler J, Neckel N. Inverse-dynamics based assessment of gait using a robotic orthosis. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2006;1:185-8.
  44. Hidler J. Robotic-assessment of walking in individuals with gait disorders. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2004; 7:4829-31.
  45. Batb1sheva TT, Skvortsov DV, Truhanov AI. Modern technologies of diagnostics and rehabilitation in neurology and orthopedics. Moscow: Medika; 2005. [in Russian]
  46. Thornton KE, Carmody DP. Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: QEEG biofeedback treatment protocols. Appl Psycho-physiol Biofeedback 2009; 34:59-68.
  47. Gater DR Jr, Dolbow D, Tsui B, Gorgey AS. Functional electrical stimulation therapies after spinal cord injury. Neuro-Rehabilitation 2011; 28:231-48.

Download Article

Int J Biomed. 2011; 1(3): 163-166. © 2011 International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.