Flavivirus Encephalitis and Immune Response

Inna F. Antoshina, Marina V. Mezenceva, Irina M. Shapoval, Olga V. Morozova, Vladimir I. Zlobin

¹Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russian Federation

²Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russian Federation

³Irkutsk State Medical University, Irkutsk, Russian Federation

*Corresponding author: Inna F. Antoshina. Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. 7Dubrovicy village, apt. 83, 142132, Podolsk district, Moscow region, Russian Federation. Tel: 7-9250-367919. Fax: 7-499-1935582 E-mail:inna.antoshyna@gmail.com


Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe and potentially fatal neurological disease among population of endemic areas from northern China and Japan, through Russia to more than 16 European countries. Beginning from 1970s a 400% increase in TBE morbidity had been registered. One of the striking epidemiological features of TBE has been periodic variation in the occurrence and severity of TBE infections in different endemic regions from Far Eastern Russia to Europe. Peak values last 1 -2 years and trough values last for 6-7 years separated by intervals of gradual transition over 1-5 years. Last maximal TBE morbidity rate had been observed in 1999 with 11,356 TBE cases in Eurasia (www.tbe-info.com) (and among them 9,955 – in Russia alone). Despite the availability of effective vaccine, an average immunization rate in endemic regions of Russia do not exceed a few percent (5-7%), in Europe vary from 6% in Baltics to 13% in Germany and 88% in Austria. Vaccines are based on Far Eastern and European strains of TBE virus in spite of evident prevalence of Siberian genetic subtype in endemic regions of Russia and surrounding countries. Moreover, TBE is an immunopathological disease, where the inflammatory CD8+ T cell-mediated reactions contribute to neuronal damage and could lead to a fatal outcome. Our report summarizes the available data on the TBE virus influence on immune response impairments with focus on comparison of cytokine genes expression levels after infection and immunization.

Tick-borne encephalitis; immune response; cytokines.
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