Morphometric Parameters, Contractility and Architecture of the Left Ventricle Myocardium in Pigs

Elena V. Bartusevich, PhD*, Anna S. Gulyaeva, PhD, Irina M. Roshchevskaya, Mikhail P. Roshchevsky, PhD, ScD

Laboratory of Comparative Cardiology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, Russian Federation

*Corresponding author: Elena V. Bartusevich, PhD, Laboratory of Comparative Cardiology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 24, Kommunisticheskaya str., 167982, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, Russian Federation. Tel/Fax: 7-8212-391451; 7-8212-391461 E-Mail:


This study aims to reveal the interrelations found within the architecture of the muscular fibers, the morphometric parameters and contractility of the left ventricular myocardium in the Landrace breed of conventional pigs. The left ventricular morphometric parameters were investigated at three levels (basal, middle, apical) utilizing echocardiography, myocardial contractility was estimated by the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and fractional thickening. The fiber architecture of the working myocardium was studied following the method of the layer-by-layer splitting of muscular fibers. The fibers of the superficial and deep layers of the left ventricle showed an oblique orientation, while the muscular fibers of the middle layer were distinguishable as high-lying and low-lying fibers. During the cardiac cycle, the greatest reduction in the transverse dimension and the greatest thickening of the walls were observed in the middle level when compared with the basal and apical levels, that is related with more thick layer of muscular circumferential fibers in the middle section of the ventricle and large papillary muscles. A low contractile ability of the left ventricle myocardium was revealed in pigs.

echocardiography; cardiac cycle; muscular fibers; ungulate.

1. Roshchevsky MP. Electric activity of heart and methods of shooting of electrocardiograms at horned cattle. Sverdlovsk: Ural Scientific-Research Inst. For Agriculture and the Urals State Univ, 1958.

2. Bharati S, Levine M, Huang SK, Handler B, Parr, GV, Bauernfeind R, et al. The conduction system of the swine heart. Chest 1991; 100:207-12.

3. Roshchevsky MP. Evolution of electrocardiology. Leningrad: Nayka, 1972.

4. Lamers WH, De Jong F, De Croot IGM, Moorman AFM. The development of the avian conduction system, a review. Eur J Morphology 1991; 29:233-53.

5. Durer D, Van Dam R, Freud G, Janse M, Meijler F, Arzbaecher R. Total excitation of the isolated human heart. Circulation 1970; 41:899-912.

6. Arisi G, Macchi E, Baruffi S, Spaggiari S, Taccardi B. Potential fields on the exposed dog heart during normal excitation. Circ Res 1983; 52:706-15.

7. Durer D, Tweel LH, Berreklouw S, Wey LP. Spread of activation in the left ventricular wall of the dog. Amer Heart J 1955; 50:860-82.

8. Truex RC, Smythe MG. Comparative morphology of the cardiac conduction tissue in animals. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1965; 127:19-33.

9. Gulyaeva AS, Roshchevskaya IM, Roshchevsky MP. Architecture of fibers of the working myocardium and the sequence of excitation of heart ventricles of a pig. Folia Cardiologia 2005; 12:601-3.

10. Anderson RH, Ho SY, Redmann K, Sanchez-Quintana D, Lunkenheimer PP. The anatomical arrangement of the myocardial cell making up the ventricular mass. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2005; 28:517-25.

11. Lunkenheimer PP, Redmann K, Kling N, Jiang X, Rothaus K, Cryer CW, et al. Three-dimensional architecture of the left ventricular myocardium. Anat Rec 2006; 288:565-78.

12. Torrent-Guasp F, Buckberg GD, Clemente C, Cox JL, Coghlan HC, Gharib M. The structure and function of the helical heart and its buttress wrapping. I. The normal macroscopic structure of the heart. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 13:301-19.

13. Torrent-Guaspa F, Kocicab MJ, Corno A, Komedad M, Coxe J, Flotatsf A, et al. Systolic ventricular filling. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2004; 25:376-86.

14. Goetz WA, Lansac E, Lim HS, Weber PA, Duran CM. Left ventricular endocardial longitudinal and transverse changes during isovolumic contraction and relaxation: a challenge. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005; 289:196-201.

15. Sengupta PP, Khandheria BK, Korinek J, Wang J, Belohlavek M. Biphasic tissue Doppler waveforms during isovolumic phases are associated with asynchronous deformation of subendocardial and subepicardial layers. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99:1104-11.

16. Spotnitz HM. Macro design, structure, and mechanics of the left ventricle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000; 119:1053-77.

17. Shapiro EP, Rademakers FE. Importance of oblique fiber orientation for left ventricular wall deformation. Technol Health Care 1997; 5:21-8.

18. Torrent-Guasp F, Kocica MJ, Corno AF, Komeda M, Carreras-Costa F, Flotats A. Towards new understanding of the heart structure and function. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2004; 20:1-11.

19. Anderson RH, Smerup M, Sanchez-Quintana D, Loukas M, Lunkenheimer PP. The three dimensional arrangement of the myocytes in the ventricular walls. Clinical Anatomy 2009; 22:64-76.

20. Shimada T, Kawazato H, Yasuda A, Ono N, Sueda K. Cytoarchitecture and intercalated disks of the working myocardium and the conduction system in the mammalian heart. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 2004; 280:940-51.

21. Roshchevskaya IM. Cardioelectric field of warmblooded animals and man. St. Petersburg: Nayka, 2008.

22. Mor-Avi V, Collins KA, Korcarz CE, Shah M, Spencer KT, Lang RM. Detection of regional temporal abnormalities in left ventricular function during acute myocardial ischemia. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001; 280:1770-81.

23. Cantor BY, Yabluchinsky NI, Martunenko AV. In vivo diagnostics of infringements of the left ventricular biomechanics. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1992.

24. Gwathmey JK, Nakao S, Come PC, Abelmann WH. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac chamber size and functional performance in swine. Am J Vet Res 1989; 50:192-7.

25. Strutynskij AV. Echocardiogramma: analysis and interpretation. Moscow: Med-press, 2011.

26. Puff A. Der funktionelle Bau der Herzkammern. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1960.

27. Roshchevsky MP, Bartusevich EV, Popov AE, Roshchevskaya IM. The geometry of the left ventricle of heart and myocardial contractility of primates, ungulates, and lagomorphs. Doklady Biological Sciences 2008; 422:309-11.

28. Lee MY, Lee SH, Lee SG, Park SH, Lee CY, Kim KH, et al. Comparative analysis of heart functions in micropigs and conventional pigs using echocardiography and radiography. J Veterinary Science 2007; 8:7-14.

29. Schmidt MA, Ohazama CJ, Agyeman KO, Freidlin RZ, Jones M, Laurienzo JM, et al. Real-time threedimensional echocardiography for measurement of left ventricular volumes. Am J Cardiol 1999; 84:1434-9.

30. Quintana M, Lindell P, Saha SK, del Furia F, Lind B, Govind S, et al. Assessment of atrial regional and global electromechanical function by tissue velocity echocardiography: a feasibility study on healthy individuals. J Cardiovascular Ultrasound 2005. Avaiable from:

31. Teichholz LE, Kreulen T, Heran MV, Gorlin R. Problems in echocardiogrraphic volume determinations: echocardiogrraphic-angiographic correlations in presence or absence of synergy. Am J Cardiol 1976; 37:7-15.

32. Gulyaeva AS, Roshchevskaya IM. Architectonic of the working myocardium fibers in pig cardiac ventricles. Morfologiia 2005; 127:52-5.

33. Fernandez-Teran MA, Hurle JM. Myocardial fiber architecture of the human heart ventricles. Anat Rec 1982; 204:137-47.

34. Sanchez-Quintana D, Garcia-Martinez V, Climent V, Hurle JM. Morphological changes in the normal pattern of ventricular myoarchitecture in the developing human heart. Anat Rec 1995; 243:483-95.

35. Sanchez-Quintana D, Garcia-Martinez V, Hurle JM. Myocardial fiber architecture in the human heart. Acta Anat 1990; 138:352-8.

36. Crick SJ, Sheppard MN, Ho SY, Gebstein L, Anderson RH. Anatomy of the pig heart: comparisons with normal human cardiac structure. J Anat 1998; 193:105-19.

37. Deniz M, Kilinc M, Hatipoglu ES. Morphologic study of left ventricular bands. Surg Radiol Anat 2004; 26:230-4.

38. Rushmer RF, Crystal DK, Wagner C. The functional anatomy of ventricular contraction. Circ Res 1953; 1:162-70.

39. Sengupta PP, Korinek J, Belohlavek M, Narula J, Vannan MA, Jahangir A, et al. Left ventricular structure and function. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48:1988-2001.

40. Henein MY, Gibson DG. Normal long axis function. Heart 1999; 81:111-3.

41. Taber LA, Yang M, Podszus WW. Mechanics of ventricular torsion. J Biomech 1996; 29:745-52.

42. Greenbaum RA, Ho SY, Gibson DG, Becker AE, Anderson RH. Left ventricular fiber architecture in man. Br Heart J 1981; 45:248-63.

The fully formatted PDF version is available.

Download Article

Int J Biomed. 2012; 2(1):50-57. © 2012 International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.