The Effectiveness of Laser Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Maria N. Ponomareva, Ivan M. Petrov, Evgeniya K. Gribanova

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2021;11(4):441-445.
DOI: 10.21103/Article11(4)_OA8
Originally published December 10, 2021


Background: Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) remains one of the effective methods of treatment in pre- and proliferative forms of retinopathy with high efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PRP depending on the somatic status, laboratory parameters, and the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a history of diabetic retinopathy (DR).
Methods and Results: The study included 76 patients (50 women and 26 men) with T2D who underwent PRP for DR (152 eyes) using a VISULAS® 532s solid-state laser (ZEISS). The patients were divided into two groups depending on the severity of CKD. Group 1 (n=32, 64 eyes) included patients with CKD Stage 1, Group 2 (n=44, 88 eyes) included patients with CKD Stage 2. All patients underwent standard ophthalmological examination: visometry, tonometry, perimetry, biomicroscopy of the anterior segment of the eye and vitreous body, and fundus ophthalmoscopy. Thickness map of the retina was obtained using the RTVue-100 OCT (Optovue, Fremont, CA) EMM5 scan protocol and the Stratus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, USA) radial scan protocol. Laboratory methods included a general blood test, PPG, FG, HbA1c, general urine analysis, and the assessment of blood levels of creatinine, ALT, and AST.
PRP was carried out according to the standard method, gradually, in three stages; the interval between the stages of laser treatment was 1 month. After laser treatment, all patients, regardless of the treatment stage, were prescribed topical Broxinac® (Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09%). The dynamics of corrected visual acuity (CVA) parameters and the retinal thickness of the macular region were assessed before PRP and 3 months after the complex treatment.    
Multivariate analysis revealed a linear and nonlinear effect of lipid spectrum indicators (TC and LDL) on the formation of CL (crystalline lens) pathology. After treatment, a significant increase in CVA was noted in both study groups. The effectiveness of PRP coagulation depended on the severity of the CKD stage in T2D patients with DR.
Normalization of morphometric parameters of the macular region of the retina was noted in 93.8% of cases in Group 1 and in 86.4% of cases in Group 2. The decrease in the effectiveness of treatment was associated with the presence of macroangiopathy (CAD), concomitant diseases (CHF, AH and dyslipidemia), and CKD stage.
Conclusion: Prolonged administration of the non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug Bromfenacum® for a month after each stage of PRP is effective.

diabetic retinopathy • chronic kidney disease • panretinal photocoagulation
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Received August 4, 2021.
Accepted September 25, 2021.
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