International Journal of Biomedicine. 2022;12(3):450-453.
Originally published September 5, 2022
The purpose of this work was to research the encapsulation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the probiotic "Evitalia" in pectic gel particles (PGPs) formed on the basis of apple pectin and citrus pectin.
Methods and Results: Commercial apple pectin (AP) AU701 (Herbstreith & Fox KG, Germany) and citrus pectin (CP) CU701 (Herbstreith & Fox KG, Germany) were used. Gel particles were prepared from 3% aqueous solutions of pectins in the presence of 0.34M CaCl2 by ionotropic gelation. The diameter and density of PGPs were determined using an optical microscope (ALTAMI, Russia). For encapsulation in PGPs, a complex of "Evitalia" dry probiotic microorganisms was used, which consists of freeze-dried strains of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. To accumulate cells of probiotic LAB, we used a modified MRS medium. An extrusion method was used to encapsulate probiotic cells in PGPs. In the study of probiotic-encapsulated PGPs, they were preliminarily destroyed by ultrasound in an HD2070 ultrasonic homogenizer (Sonopuls, Germany). The encapsulation efficiency of the formulation for the probiotic bacteria was determined according to the formula: Encapsulation efficiency (%) = Bacteria in the capsules (CFU/ml) / Bacteria in initial cell suspension (CFU/ml) × 100.
"Evitalia" probiotic cells (PC) were grown on three different nutrient media: MRS medium, milk medium, and glucose-peptone medium. The largest number of LAB cells was formed when growing on MRS medium after 3 days of cultivation. In experiments on encapsulating bacterial cells, we used 3-day-old cultures of "Evitalia." The morphological and structural-mechanical characteristics of PGPs and particles loaded with the "Evitalia" LAB cells were studied. The degree of encapsulation of the probiotic LAB in PGPs was studied. More effectively, the LAB cells are encapsulated in PGPs formed from CP. The degree of loading of wet pectic particles from CP was 17.5%, and less for dry pectic particles based on CP (1.96%). Similar indicators for PGPs formed on the basis of AP were 5.6% and 0.33%, respectively.
Conclusion: PGPs formed on the basis of AP and CP can serve as a matrix for encapsulating probiotic LAB.
1. Shubakov AA, Mikhailova EA. The study of the growth of Escherichia coli on pectins. International Journal of Biomedicine. 2019;9(4):366-369. doi: 10.21103/Article9(4)_OA18
2. Gu M, Zhang Z, Pan C, Goulette TR, Zhang R, Hendricks G, McClements DJ, Xiao H. Encapsulation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G7 in gastroprotective microgels: Improvement of the bacterial viability under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Food Hydrocolloids. 2019;91:283-289. doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.01.040
3. Sventitsky EN, Toropov DK, Egorova TS. Preparation of a microencapsulated form of a symbiotic probiotic complex Lactobacillus helveticus using alginate and chitosan. Biotechnology. 2020;36(2):56-63. doi: 10.21519/0234-2758-2020-36-2-56-63
4. Baral KC, Bajracharya R, Lee SH, Han HK. Advancements in the Pharmaceutical Applications of Probiotics: Dosage Forms and Formulation Technology. Int J Nanomedicine. 2021 Nov 12;16:7535-7556. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S337427. PMID: 34795482; PMCID: PMC8594788.
5. Yoha KS, Nida S, Dutta S, Moses JA, Anandharamakrishnan C. Targeted Delivery of Probiotics: Perspectives on Research and Commercialization. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2022 Feb;14(1):15-48. doi: 10.1007/s12602-021-09791-7. Epub 2021 Apr 27. PMID: 33904011; PMCID: PMC8075719.
6. Drago L. Probiotics and Colon Cancer. Microorganisms. 2019 Feb 28;7(3):66. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7030066. PMID: 30823471; PMCID: PMC6463067.
7. Dong LM, Luan NT, Thuy DTK. Enhancing the viability rate of probiotic by co-encapsulating with prebiotic in alginate microcapsules supplemented to cupcake production. Microbiol Biotechnol Lett. 2020;48(2):113-120. doi: 10.4014/mbl.1910.10015
8. Sun Q, Wicker L. Hydrogel Encapsulation of Lactobacillus casei by Block Charge Modified Pectin and Improved Gastric and Storage Stability. Foods. 2021 Jun 10;10(6):1337. doi: 10.3390/foods10061337. PMID: 34200620; PMCID: PMC8227579.
9. Yao M, Xie J, Du H, McClements DJ, Xiao H, Li L. Progress in microencapsulation of probiotics: A review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2020 Mar;19(2):857-874. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12532. Epub 2020 Feb 11. PMID: 33325164.
10. Liserre AM, Re MI, Franco BDGM. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis in modified alginate-chitosan beads and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Food Biotechnol. 2007;21:1-16. doi: 10.1080/08905430701191064
11. Cook MT, Tzortzis G, Charalampopoulos D, Khutoryanskiy VV. Microencapsulation of probiotics for gastrointestinal delivery. J Control Release. 2012 Aug 20;162(1):56-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.06.003. Epub 2012 Jun 11. PMID: 22698940.
12. De Man J., Rogosa MA, Sharpe ME. A medium for the cultivation of Lactobacilli. J Appl Bacteriol. 1960;23:130-135. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1960.tb00188.x
13. Yarullina DR., Fakhrullin RF. Bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus: general characteristics and methods of working with them. Kazan: Kazan University Publ., 2014.
14. Sriamornsak P. Effect of calcium concentration, hardening agent and drying condition on release characteristics of oral proteins from calcium pectinate gel beads. Eur J Pharm Sci. 1999 Jul;8(3):221-7. doi: 10.1016/s0928-0987(99)00010-x. PMID: 10379045.
15. Shubakov AA, Mikhailova EA, Prosheva VI, Belyy VA. Swelling and degradation of calcium-pectic gel particles made of pectins of Silene vulgaris and Lemna minor callus cultures at different concentrations of pectinase in an artificial colon environment. International Journal of Biomedicine. 2018;8(1):60-64. doi: 10.21103/Article8(1)_OA10
16. Shubakov AA, Mikhailova EA. Production, properties and transit of copper-pectic gel particles through an artificial gastroenteric environment. International Journal of Biomedicine. 2020;10(4):421-423. doi: 10.21103/Article10(4)_OA18
17. Shubakov AA, Mikhailova EA. Production, properties and swelling of copper-pectic gel particles in an artificial gastroenteric environment. International Journal of Biomedicine. 2021;11(1):50-52. doi: 10.21103/Article11(1)_OA10
18. Qaziyani SD, Pourfarzad A, Gheibi S, Nasiraie LR. Effect of encapsulation and wall material on the probiotic survival and physicochemical properties of synbiotic chewing gum: study with univariate and multivariate analyses. Heliyon. 2019 Jul 25;5(7):e02144. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02144. Erratum in: Heliyon. 2019 Aug 22;5(8):e02321. PMID: 31372570; PMCID: PMC6661279.
19. Raddatz GC, Poletto G, Deus C, Codevilla CF, Cichoski AJ, Jacob-Lopes E, Muller EI, Flores EMM, Esmerino EA, de Menezes CR. Use of prebiotic sources to increase probiotic viability in pectin microparticles obtained by emulsification/internal gelation followed by freeze-drying. Food Res Int. 2020 Apr;130:108902. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108902. Epub 2019 Dec 17. PMID: 32156352.
Received August 1, 2022.
Accepted August 26, 2022.
©2022 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.