Association between Renal Stones Sonographic Findings and Demographic Data among Patients at Riyadh Hospitals, Saudi Arabia

Mahasin G. Hassan, Tahani Alshammrani, Shahad Alshammeri, Faten Alotaibi, Sara Alzeryer, Reem Alharbi, Amal Almujalli, Sahar Mansour, Ibrahim Luttfi, Tasneem S.A. Elmahdi, Lubna Bushara, Halima Hawesa

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2022;12(4):580-583.
DOI: 10.21103/Article12(4)_OA10
Originally published December 5, 2022


Background: Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality to identify renal stones (RS) in patients with acute flank pain. This study aimed to evaluate the presence, location, and size of RS diagnosed by ultrasound in association with age, gender, and BMI among patients at Riyadh hospitals.
Methods and Results: In this case-control study, a total of 250 records (130/52% for males and 120/48% for females) from 2018 to 2019 were reviewed from January to March 2020 at different hospitals in Riyadh. In this study, 150(60%) records of patients with RS and 100(40%) records of patients without RS were collected to evaluate the risk factor for RS formation in the central area of Saudi Arabia. A designed data collection sheet containing all variables (demographic and sonographic) of the study was used. Demographic data included gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). Sonographic data included RS presence (yes, no), RS location (right kidney [RK], left kidney [LK], both kidneys), and RS size (small [<0.5cm], average [0.5–1cm], and large [>1cm]). 
The study found that RS were more common among males than females  (P<0.001). The results show that in normal BW, the frequency of stone presence was similar for RK and LK. In overweight patients, RS were more often observed in LK (P=0.000). We also found a significant association between BMI and RS size (P=0.049); the presence of smaller stones increases with BMI. There was no association between sonographic data and age (P>0.05)
Conclusion: Among patients at Riyadh hospitals, females are less affected by RS than males. Gender is a significant risk factor for the development of RS. The effect of BMI is obvious on renal stone location and size.

kidney• renal stone • gender • demographic data • ultrasound

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Received October 22, 2022.
Accepted November 25, 2022.
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