Shear Bond Strength of Two Self-Etching Adhesives to Air-Abraded Dentin: An in Vitro Study

Timur V. Melkumyan, Shahnoza K. Musashaykhova, Zurab S. Khabadze, Maria K. Makeeva, Marina U. Dashtieva, Diloro J. Kakhkharova, Angela D. Dadamova

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2022;12(4):591-595.
DOI: 10.21103/Article12(4)_OA12
Originally published December 5, 2022


Background: The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-abrasive treatment of dentin on the chemical composition of its surface and the adhesion strength of 2 self-etching adhesive systems (AS).
Methods and Results: Powders based on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) (27µm) (KaVo, Biberach, Germany), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) (40µm) (AIR-FlOW Classic Comfort, EMS, Nyon, Switzerland), and erythritol (14µm) (AIR-FLOW Plus, EMS, Nyon, Switzerland) were used for the air-abrasive treatment of adhesive surfaces. Bonding steps were carried out with Single Bond Universal (SBU) (3M ESPE, USA) and Bond Force 2 (BF2) (Toquyama, Japan). The adhesion strength of composite to dentin was evaluated on 80 samples prepared in accordance with the Ultradent Shear Bond Strength test. All samples were divided into 4 groups depending on the method of dentin surface processing. In the samples of Group 1 (n=20), aluminum oxide was used for the air-abrasive treatment of dentin. In Group 2 (n=20) and Group 3 (n=20), samples were treated using powders based on sodium bicarbonate and erythritol, respectively. Group 4 (control, n=20) included tooth samples in which the dentin surface was not air-abraded after preparation with carbide burs. Then, each group was divided into 2 subgroups (Sub-A and Sub-B) depending on the type of adhesive system used. Adhesive resin was applied and polymerized in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Single Bond Universal (SBU) was used for the samples of Sub-A, and Bond Force 2 (BF2) (Toquyama, Japan) was used for the samples of Sub-B. Scanning electron microscopy and determining the surface elemental composition of samples were carried out on an SEM-EVO MA 10 (Carl Zeiss) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer with EDS Aztec Energy Advanced X-Act (Oxford Instruments). It was concluded that air-abrasive treatment of the dentin surface does not enhance the adhesion strength of composite material when using self-etch AS. Also, it was noted that the pH level of self-etch AS is not a crucial feature in determining the strength of the filling-tooth interface. The resulting variations in the elemental composition of dentin surface after air-abrasion with various mixtures and their effect on the efficacy of the different AS require further in vitro studies.

air-abrasion • adhesive systems • dentin surface

1. Banerjee A, Watson TF. Pickard’s Manual of Operative Dentistry, 9th edition. Oxford, UK: OUP Oxford; 2011
2. Hegde VS, Khatavkar RA. A new dimension to conservative dentistry: Air abrasion. J Conserv Dent. 2010 Jan;13(1):4-8. doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.62632.

3. Van Meerbeek B, Yoshihara K, Yoshida Y, Mine A, De Munck J, Van Landuyt KL. State of the art of self-etch adhesives. Dent Mater. 2011 Jan;27(1):17-28. doi: 10.1016/ 
4. Foxton RM. Current perspectives on dental adhesion: (2) Concepts for operatively managing carious lesions extending into dentine using bioactive and adhesive direct restorative materials. Jpn Dent Sci Rev. 2020 Nov;56(1):208-215. doi: 10.1016/j.jdsr.2020.08.003. 
5. Melkumyan TV, Kakhkharova DJ, Dadamova AD; Kamilov NKh, Siddikova SSh, Rakhmatullaeva ShI, Masouleh SM. Comparative Analysis of in vitro Performance of Total-Etch and Self-Etch Adhesives. International Journal of Biomedicine.2016;6(4):283-286. doi: 10.21103/Article6(4)OA7.
6. Bornstein ES. Why wavelength and delivery systems are the most important factors in using a dental hard-tissue laser: a literature review. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2003 Nov;24(11):837-8, 841, 843 passim; quiz 848.
7. Iaria G. Clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural aspects with the use of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in restorative dentistry. Gen Dent. 2008 Nov-Dec;56(7):636-9. 
8. Lin T, Aoki A, Saito N, Yumoto M, Nakajima S, Nagasaka K, Ichinose S, Mizutani K, Wada S, Izumi Y. Dental hard tissue ablation using mid-infrared tunable nanosecond pulsed Cr:CdSe laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2016 Dec;48(10):965-977. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22508.
9. de Oliveira MT, de Freitas PM, de Paula Eduardo C, Ambrosano GM, Giannini M. Influence of Diamond Sono-Abrasion, Air-Abrasion and Er:YAG Laser Irradiation on Bonding of Different Adhesive Systems to Dentin. Eur J Dent. 2007 Jul;1(3):158-66.
10. Anja B, Walter D, Nicoletta C, Marco F, Pezelj Ribarić S, Ivana M. Influence of air abrasion and sonic technique on microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesive on human dentin. ScientificWorldJournal. 2015;2015:368745. doi: 10.1155/2015/368745.
11. Lima VP, Soares K, Caldeira VS, Faria-E-Silva AL, Loomans B, Moraes RR. Airborne-particle Abrasion and Dentin Bonding: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Oper Dent. 2021 Jan 1;46(1):E21-E33. doi: 10.2341/19-216-L.
12. Moëne R, Décaillet F, Andersen E, Mombelli A. Subgingival plaque removal using a new air-polishing device. J Periodontol. 2010 Jan;81(1):79-88. doi: 10.1902/jop.2009.090394.
13. Kröger JC, Haribyan M, Nergiz I, Schmage P. Air polishing with erythritol powder - In vitro effects on dentin loss. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2020 Sep-Oct;24(5):433-440. doi: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_414_19.
14. Kruse AB, Akakpo DL, Maamar R, Woelber JP, Al-Ahmad A, Vach K, Ratka-Krueger P. Trehalose powder for subgingival air-polishing during periodontal maintenance therapy: A randomized controlled trial. J Periodontol. 2019 Mar;90(3):263-270. doi: 10.1002/JPER.17-0403.
15. Kofford KR, Wakefield CW, Murchison DF. Aluminum oxide air abrasion particles: a bacteriologic and SEM study. Quintessence Int. 2001 Mar;32(3):243-8.
16. Johnson King O, Milly H, Boyes V, Austin R, Festy F, Banerjee A. The effect of air-abrasion on the susceptibility of sound enamel to acid challenge. J Dent. 2016 Mar;46:36-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.01.009.
17. Barnes CM, Covey D, Watanabe H, Simetich B, Schulte JR, Chen H. An in vitro comparison of the effects of various air polishing powders on enamel and selected esthetic restorative materials. J Clin Dent. 2014;25(4):76-87.
18. Sauro S, Watson TF, Thompson I, Banerjee A. One-bottle self-etching adhesives applied to dentine air-abraded using bioactive glasses containing polyacrylic acid: an in vitro microtensile bond strength and confocal microscopy study. J Dent. 2012 Nov;40(11):896-905. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.07.004.
19. Spagnuolo G, Pires PM, Calarco A, Peluso G, Banerjee A, Rengo S, Elias Boneta AR, Sauro S. An in-vitro study investigating the effect of air-abrasion bioactive glasses on dental adhesion, cytotoxicity and odontogenic gene expression. Dent Mater. 2021 Nov;37(11):1734-1750. doi: 10.1016/ 
20. 20 Giannini M, Makishi P, Ayres AP, Vermelho PM, Fronza BM, Nikaido T, Tagami J. Self-etch adhesive systems: a literature review. Braz Dent J. 2015 Jan-Feb;26(1):3-10. doi: 10.1590/0103-6440201302442.
21. Ozer F, Blatz MB. Self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in clinical dentistry. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2013 Jan;34(1):12-4, 16, 18; quiz 20, 30. PMID: 23550327.
22. Pashley DH, Tay FR, Breschi L, Tjäderhane L, Carvalho RM, Carrilho M, Tezvergil-Mutluay A. State of the art etch-and-rinse adhesives. Dent Mater. 2011 Jan;27(1):1-16. doi: 10.1016/
23. Hashimoto M, Ito S, Tay FR, Svizero NR, Sano H, Kaga M, Pashley DH. Fluid movement across the resin-dentin interface during and after bonding. J Dent Res. 2004 Nov;83(11):843-8. doi: 10.1177/154405910408301104.
24. Paul SJ, Leach M, Rueggeberg FA, Pashley DH. Effect of water content on the physical properties of model dentine primer and bonding resins. J Dent. 1999 Mar;27(3):209-14. doi: 10.1016/s0300-5712(98)00042-6.
25. Cadenaro M, Breschi L, Rueggeberg FA, Suchko M, Grodin E, Agee K, Di Lenarda R, Tay FR, Pashley DH. Effects of residual ethanol on the rate and degree of conversion of five experimental resins. Dent Mater. 2009 May;25(5):621-8. doi: 10.1016/
26. Perdigão J, Frankenberger R, Rosa BT, Breschi L. New trends in dentin/enamel adhesion. Am J Dent. 2000 Nov;13(Spec No):25D-30D.
27. Van Meerbeek B, Yoshihara K, Yoshida Y, Mine A, De Munck J, Van Landuyt KL. State of the art of self-etch adhesives. Dent Mater. 2011 Jan;27(1):17-28. doi: 10.1016/
28. Saikaew P, Sattabanasuk V, Harnirattisai C, Chowdhury AFMA, Carvalho R, Sano H. Role of the smear layer in adhesive dentistry and the clinical applications to improve bonding performance. Jpn Dent Sci Rev. 2022 Nov;58:59-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jdsr.2021.12.001.
29. Suyama Y, Lührs AK, De Munck J, Mine A, Poitevin A, Yamada T, Van Meerbeek B, Cardoso MV. Potential smear layer interference with bonding of self-etching adhesives to dentin. J Adhes Dent. 2013 Aug;15(4):317-24. doi: 10.3290/j.jad.a29554.
30. Melkumyan TV, Musashaykhova ShK, Daurova FYu, Kamilov NKh, Sheraliyeva SSh, Dadamova AD. Effect of Air-Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Dentin: A Study in Vitro International Journal of Biomedicine.2021;11(4):451-455. doi:10.21103/Article11(4)_OA10.
31. 31.Melkumyan TV, Seeberger GK, Khabadze ZS, Kamilov NKh, Makeeva MK, Dashtieva MU, Sheralieva SSh, Dadamova AD. Air Abrasion of Titanium Dental Implants with Water-Soluble Powders: An In Vitro Study International Journal of Biomedicine. 2022;12(3):428-432. doi:10.21103/Article12(3)_OA15.
32. Bester SP, de Wet FA, Nel JC, Driessen CH. The effect of airborne particle abrasion on the dentin smear layer and dentin: an in vitro investigation. Int J Prosthodont. 1995 Jan-Feb;8(1):46-50.
33. Hellyer P. The longevity of composite restorations. Br Dent J. 2022 Apr;232(7):459. doi: 10.1038/s41415-022-4163-4. 
34. Opdam NJ, van de Sande FH, Bronkhorst E, Cenci MS, Bottenberg P, Pallesen U, Gaengler P, Lindberg A, Huysmans MC, van Dijken JW. Longevity of posterior composite restorations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent Res. 2014 Oct;93(10):943-9. doi: 10.1177/0022034514544217.
35. Kubo S. Longevity of resin composite restorations. Japanese Dental Science Review. 2011;47(1):43-55. doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2010.05.002.
36. Melkumyan TV, Makhamadaminova KD, Kamilov EKh. Clinical and Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of «Soft-Start» Polymerization in Dental Composite Restoration. International Journal of Biomedicine. 2012;2(3):242-245
37. Goldberg M, Kulkarni AB, Young M, Boskey A. Dentin: structure, composition and mineralization. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2011 Jan 1;3(2):711-35. doi: 10.2741/e281.
38. Scotti N, Bergantin E, Giovannini R, Delbosco L, Breschi L, Migliaretti G, Pasqualini D, Berutti E. Influence of multi-step etch-and-rinse versus self-etch adhesive systems on the post-operative sensitivity in medium-depth carious lesions: An in vivo study. Am J Dent. 2015 Aug;28(4):214-8.
39. Gupta A, Tavane P, Gupta PK, Tejolatha B, Lakhani AA, Tiwari R, Kashyap S, Garg G. Evaluation of Microleakage with Total Etch, Self-Etch and Universal Adhesive Systems in Class V Restorations: An In vitro Study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Apr;11(4):ZC53-ZC56. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/24907.9680.
40. Pashley DH. Smear layer: overview of structure and function. Proc Finn Dent Soc. 1992;88 Suppl 1:215-24.
41. Banerjee A, Watson TF. Air abrasion: its uses and abuses. Dent Update. 2002 Sep;29(7):340-6. doi: 10.12968/denu.2002.29.7.340.
42. Mujdeci A, Gokay O. The effect of airborne-particle abrasion on the shear bond strength of four restorative materials to enamel and dentin. J Prosthet Dent. 2004 Sep;92(3):245-9. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2004.05.007.
43. Freeman R, Varanasi S, Meyers IA, Symons AL. Effect of air abrasion and thermocycling on resin adaptation and shear bond strength to dentin for an etch-and-rinse and self-etch resin adhesive. Dent Mater J. 2012;31(2):180-8. doi: 10.4012/ dmj.2011-146.
44. Poggio C, Beltrami R, Scribante A, Colombo M, Chiesa M. Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives: pH influence. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2015 May-Jun;12(3):209-14.

Download Article
Received October 10, 2022.
Accepted November 11, 2022.
©2022 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.