Trends in Prediabetes and Diabetes Prevalence in Kosovo: A Comparison of the Results of Steps Survey From 2011 and 2019

Naser Ramadani, Sanije Hoxha-Gashi, Sefedin Muçaj, Ajkuna Hoxha, Naim Jerliu, Josipa Kern

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2023;13(1):47-53.
DOI: 10.21103/Article13(1)_OA4
Originally published March 3, 2023


Background: Some years ago, chronic diseases were considered to be a problem for the wealthy and elderly population. Today, chronic conditions affect the poor, young, and middle-aged people in high-income countries. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been continuously growing for over half a century and has reached pandemic proportions. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the trends in prediabetes and DM prevalence and to determine related risk factors among Kosovo people from 2011 to 2019.
Methods and Results: A population-based survey was conducted among people aged 18-69 from April 2018 to June 2019 and those aged 15-64 using the WHO STEPs instrument. Detailed findings on the magnitude of DM and impaired fasting blood glucose (FBG) are presented in this paper.
Prevalence of prediabetes in 2011 at 15-64 years was 6.0% (95% CI, 4.6% - 7.9%), and in 2019 at 18-69 years was 6.1% (95% CI, 5.3% - 7.1%), not a significant difference (P>0.05). To avoid bias from different ages, we compared prevalence by age groups. Only in the age group of 35-44 we found a significant difference in the prevalence of prediabetes. In this age group, the prevalence of prediabetes was 2.4% (95% CI, 0.9%-6.1%) in 2011 and 2.7% (95%CI, 0.9%-6.1%) in 2019. In 2019, the prevalence of prediabetes was higher among males than in 2011, when females prevailed.
Prevalence of DM in 2011 at 15-64 years was 7.7% (95% CI, 6.0% - 9.7%), and in 2019 at 18 – 69 years was 7.9% (95% CI, 6.9% - 9.0%), not a significant difference (P>0.05). In the age groups of 45-54 and 55-64, we found a significant difference in the prevalence of DM by years. The prevalence of DM at 45-54 years was 13.5% (95% CI, 9.2% - 19.5%) in 2011 and 7.8% (95%CI, 6.0%-10.2%) in 2019 (P=0.032). The prevalence of DM at 55-54 years was 21.6% (95% CI, 15.8% - 28.9%) in 2011 and 13.2% (95%CI, 10.6%-16.3%) in 2019 (P=0.015). The prevalence of DM was higher among females in 2011 and 2019.
Conclusion: Results from 2 STEPS in Kosovo show that we have no significant increase in the prevalence of prediabetes and DM in total. At the same time, we found a significant decrease in DM in the age group 45-64.

prediabetes • diabetes • Kosovo adults • STEPS survey
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Received January 13, 2023.
Accepted February 15, 2023.
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