International Journal of Biomedicine. 2023;13(3):101-104.
Originally published September 5, 2023
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and prevalence have increased globally. The gravity of this chronic disease comes from its ability to progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which are rising rapidly. Genetic, demographic, environmental, and clinical factors are significant in the occurrence of NAFL. This study aimed to assess risk factors that affect the occurrence of NAFLD.
Methods and Results: This cross-sectional study was carried out at hospitals in the Hail Region, KSA. It included 160 patients: 76 were considered as control (normal liver), and 84 suffered from fatty liver (according to a US image). Sonography was carried out using a US scanner with curvilinear transducers having a frequency of 3.5MHz. The following data were obtained: age, BMI, clinical history, including long-term medication of more than 3 months (oral antidiabetic medications, hormone replacement therapy for hyperthyroidism, and antihypertensive drug), T2D, viral hepatitis, liver span, lipidemia, metabolic disorders, and weight loss. The prevalence of NAFLD increases significantly among patients taking medications for a long time and T2D patients (P<0.001). Hepatomegaly is one of the most common physical examination findings of NAFLD (P<0.001).
Conclusion: A periodic US examination is helpful because it can reveal fatty infiltration of the liver in the early stages to avoid fatal complications, especially for patients with long-term medication or T2D. Other studies with larger sample sizes and different known risk factors are needed to discover all risk factors for the KSA population.
- Huh Y, Cho YJ, Nam GE. Recent Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. J Obes Metab Syndr. 2022 Mar 30;31(1):17-27. doi: 10.7570/jomes22021.
- Ching-Yeung Yu B, Kwok D, Wong VW. Magnitude of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Eastern Perspective. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2019 Jul-Aug;9(4):491-496. doi: 10.1016/j.jceh.2019.01.007.
- Feng G, Li XP, Niu CY, Liu ML, Yan QQ, Fan LP, Li Y, Zhang KL, Gao J, Qian MR, He N, Mi M. Bioinformatics analysis reveals novel core genes associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gene. 2020 Jun 5;742:144549. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2020.144549.
- Cai C, Song X, Yu C. Identification of genes in hepatocellular carcinoma induced by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Cancer Biomark. 2020;29(1):69-78. doi: 10.3233/CBM-190169.
- Maurice J, Manousou P. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Med (Lond). 2018 Jun;18(3):245-250. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.18-3-245.
- Tahmasebi A, Wang S, Wessner CE, Vu T, Liu JB, Forsberg F, Civan J, Guglielmo FF, Eisenbrey JR. Ultrasound-Based Machine Learning Approach for Detection of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. J Ultrasound Med. 2023 Feb 20. doi: 10.1002/jum.16194.
- Pirmoazen AM, Khurana A, Loening AM, Liang T, Shamdasani V, Xie H, El Kaffas A, Kamaya A. Diagnostic Performance of 9 Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters for Detection and Classification of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Invest Radiol. 2022 Jan 1;57(1):23-32. doi: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000797.
- Khov N, Sharma A, Riley TR. Bedside ultrasound in the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun 14;20(22):6821-5. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i22.6821.
- AIUM practice guideline for the performance of an ultrasound examination of the abdomen and/or retroperitoneum. J Ultrasound Med. 2012 Aug;31(8):1301-12. doi: 10.7863/jum.2012.31.8.1301.
- Lin Y, Feng X, Cao X, Miao R, Sun Y, Li R, Ye J, Zhong B. Age patterns of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease incidence: heterogeneous associations with metabolic changes. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2022 Nov 28;14(1):181. doi: 10.1186/s13098-022-00930-w.
- Hu XY, Li Y, Li LQ, Zheng Y, Lv JH, Huang SC, Zhang W, Liu L, Zhao L, Liu Z, Zhao XJ. Risk factors and biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an observational cross-sectional population survey. BMJ Open. 2018 Apr 5;8(4):e019974. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019974.
- LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012-. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver. [Updated 2019 May 4]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK547860/
- Dharmalingam M, Yamasandhi PG. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018 May-Jun;22(3):421-428. doi: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_585_17.
- Kheiralla OAM, Babikr WG, Elbadry AH. Sonographic Average Value Of Normal Liver Span Among Saudi Adults Referred To Najran University Hospital.” IOSR-JDMS, 2016;15(5):27-34.
- Dean D. Abdominal Ultrasound, and Instrumentation. Part 1, Module 4, 1st ed. The Burwin institute of diagnostic medical ultrasound. 2005, Luneburg; Canada.
Received April 25, 2023.
Accepted July 5, 2023.
©2023 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.