In vivo Evaluation of the Antiviral Effects of Arabian Coffee (Coffea arabica) and Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Extracts on Influenza A Virus

Sarah Alfaifi, Rania Suliman, Mona Timan Idriss, Abeer S Aloufi, Ebtesam Alolayan, Maaweya Awadalla, Alhassan Aodah, Omar Abu Asab, Jarallah Al-Qahtani, Nahla Mohmmed, Bandar Alosaimi

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2023;13(3):154-161.
DOI: 10.21103/Article13(3)_OA18
Originally published September 5, 2023


This in vivo study was conducted to evaluate the antiviral activity of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica) and green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts against the influenza virus. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the active components in each extract, and eighty experimental mice were treated. Electrophoresis was performed to detect protein expression, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze gene expression and quantify viral RNA. Lung tissue histopathology was processed to observe pathological signs. Oral administration of all extracts reduced the viral quantification in mice lungs by 61.6% in the early phase of infection, measured by PCR. From the extracts tested, unroasted green Arabica coffee (AC) extract in protective groups showed remarkable body weight stability of 16.76 g, a survival rate of 100%, and healthier lung tissue, compared to other groups. The antiviral effects of the tested AC and GT (green tea) revealed that AC extracts induced veridical effects, increased body weight, and improved survival rate. Those natural extracts may interfere with viral replication and reduce virus infection. The observed anti-influenza activity demonstrated by reduced symptoms and increased survival rate in animal models suggests that AC extracts might be used as a promising prophylactic agent against influenza viral infections. The active compound in the unroasted green AC extract requires further in vitro analysis as to which viral proteins are targeted by the natural extract and which molecular mechanism this antiviral inhibition is interfering with.

Influenza A virus • Coffea arabica • Camellia sinensis • RT-PCR • HPLC
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Received July 5, 2023.
Accepted August 22, 2023.
©2023 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.