Intersections of Sociodemographic Factors and Cervical-Vaginal Infections: Implications for Preterm Birth and Abortion Outcomes

Edlira Bylykbashi, Ilta Bylykbashi, Ergys Ramosacaj, Aldo Shpuza, Xhesika Xhetani

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2023;13(4):269-276.
DOI: 10.21103/Article13(4)_OA6
Originally published December 5, 2023


Background: Preterm labor and abortion, often influenced by cervical-vaginal infections (CVIs), remain pressing reproductive health challenges. This study explores the interplay between socio-demographic factors, emerging pathogens like Mycoplasma genitalium, and their combined implications for these adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Methods and Results: The study utilized a retrospective approach based on sonographic databases, laboratory data, and clinical records of patients monitored at the Bylykbashi clinic and subsequently at the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology ‘Mbreteresha Geraldine’, Tirana. Data were analyzed from 2016 to 2020, involving a cohort of 1,738 pregnancies. The final group consisted of 1,482 pregnancies. These pregnancies were tracked from the time of pregnancy diagnosis until its conclusion. Vaginal secretion examinations were rigorously conducted using direct microscopy, cultures, and the A.F. GENITAL SYSTEM kit to diagnose Ureaplasma-Mycoplasma (UM) presence, with a focus on its association with abortions and preterm births.
Our study of 1,482 participants showed that 47.2% resided in urban areas, while 52.8% were from rural settings. Most participants fall within the 26-30 (29.6%) and 31-35 (28.1%) age groups. Regarding parity, 28.8% were primigravida, and 63% have had 12 years or less of formal education. The data showed that a significant portion (82.1%) of participants had their first sexual intercourse after the age of 18. The occurrence of urinary tract infections during pregnancy was reported by 32% of the women. UM-positive cases constituted 51.5% of the respondents. Group B Streptococcus and Candida albicans were detected in 28.5% and 47.0% of the respondents, respectively. Multivariate analyses identified younger age, early sexual debut, and primigravida status as notable risk factors for preterm births and abortions.
Conclusion: The correlation between sociodemographic factors and CVIs takes on significant importance in predicting maternal health outcomes, especially concerning preterm births and abortions. The heightened risk among younger individuals, those with early sexual debut, and those undergoing early onset of menarche underscores the profound influence of age and life experiences on cervical-vaginal health. Our findings related to CVIs emphasize the critical need for early detection, increased awareness, and prompt treatment.

preterm birth • abortion • cervical-vaginal infections • socio-demographic factors
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Received October 9, 2023.
Accepted Nobember 17, 2023.
©2023 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.