Oral Changes in Chronic Renal Failure Patients in One of the Regional Hospitals in Kosovo

G. Muhaxheri, J. Kelmendi, V. Hysenaj Cakolli, D. Kolgeci

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2023;13(4):306-311.
DOI: 10.21103/Article13(4)_OA12
Originally published December 5, 2023


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a higher tendency to have oral diseases such as periodontitis, saliva flow changes, bleeding gums, dry mouth, and bad breath. Malnutrition, oxidative stress, and vitamin deficiency, such as complex vitamin B and vitamin C, are the main factors that may cause oral changes. This study aimed to evaluate the subjective oral health of a sample of 90 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) in dialysis and determine the relationship between renal failure and oral changes. As a result, the most frequent answer was dry mouth after dialysis at around 73.3% of the patients, whereas 41.1% had tooth decay, 52% had bad breath, 35% had gingival bleeding and 22.2% have noticed tooth coloring. The comparison between male and female patients found significant differences in uremic fetor: male patients had an average score of 1.58, while female patients had 1.36 (P=0.0371). Another significant difference was found for tooth discoloration: the average score for males was 1.67 and for females, 1.90 (p=0.0082). Patients in urban areas had an average score for caries after dialysis of 1.40, while those in rural areas had 1.68 (P=0.01). Patients with CRF should get multidisciplinary treatment. These patients require special consideration not only about dental treatment but also because of the side effects of the treatments they receive. A detailed evaluation and provision of good oral care after diagnosis of end-stage renal disease is more than necessary.

chronic renal failure • uremic fetor • dry mouth
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Received July 25, 2023.
Accepted September 5, 2023.
©2023 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.