Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Oral Surgery and Endodontic Procedures as a Regenerative Biomaterial: A Review Article

Lavdie Leci Morina, Ilijana Muratovska, Besim Hajdari, Zana Agani, Besnik Leci, Venera Bimbashi

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2023;13(4):213-220.
DOI: 10.21103/Article13(4)_RA3
Originally published December 5, 2023


Background: One of the major challenges in clinical research is to incorporate materials and procedures into dentistry that can improve clinical outcomes, increasing percentages of success. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a surgical, biological additive prepared by manipulation of autologous blood, which stimulates and regulates inflammation during and after oral surgery. This study aims to assess the potential benefits of using PRF in modern oral and endodontic surgery to accelerate radiographic healing and reduce postoperative discomfort.
Methods and Results: Electronic literature research was conducted using the biomedical search engine “National Library of Medicine,” PubMed/MEDLINE database from March 2000 to June 2023. To obtain results that involved the whole scope of dentistry and PRF, the keywords used for the search were “PRF,” “PRF in dentistry,” and “PRF on apical surgery.” The articles were selected by reviewing the titles and abstracts of the articles with the word “platelet-rich fibrin (PRF).” Articles related only to clinical applications in general dentistry and its different application fields were hand-searched in applicable, significant journals, and reference lists of included studies were broadcast with no language limitation. The inclusion criteria set for this review were as follows: all case reports, case series, original research papers, review papers, in vitro/in vivo studies, animal studies, and controlled clinical trials on PRF used in dentistry-related studies.
Current studies, in vitro and in vivo, have confirmed safe and encouraging results, without opposing outcomes, related to the use of PRF alone or in a mixture with other biomaterials. Currently, the use of PRF treatment has been shown to enhance and promote natural tissue healing support.

platelet-rich fibrin • endodontic procedures • apical surgery
  1. Dohan DM, Choukroun J, Diss A, Dohan SL, Dohan AJ, Mouhyi J, Gogly B. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part I: technological concepts and evolution. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006 Mar;101(3):e37-44. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.07.008.
  2. Singer AJ, Clark RA. Cutaneous wound healing. N Engl J Med. 1999 Sep 2;341(10):738-46. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199909023411006.
  3. Naik B, Karunakar P, Jayadev M, Marshal VR. Role of Platelet rich fibrin in wound healing: A critical review. J Conserv Dent. 2013 Jul;16(4):284-93. doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.114344.
  4. Andia I, Abate M. Platelet-rich plasma: underlying biology and clinical correlates. Regen Med. 2013 Sep;8(5):645-58. doi: 10.2217/rme.13.59.
  5. Andia I. Platelet-rich plasma biology. In: Alves R, Grimalt R, editors. Clinical Indications and Treatment Protocols with Platelet-Rich Plasma in Dermatology. Barcelona: Ediciones Mayo; 2016:3-15.
  6. Vyas KS, Saha SP. Comparison of hemostatic agents used in vascular surgery. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013 Dec;13(12):1663-72. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2013.848193. 
  7. Whitman DH, Berry RL, Green DM. Platelet gel: an autologous alternative to fibrin glue with applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;55(11):1294-1299. doi:10.1016/s0278-2391(97)90187-7
  8. Perez-Favila A, Martinez-Fierro ML, Rodriguez-Lazalde JG, Cid-Baez MA, Zamudio-Osuna MJ, Martinez-Blanco MDR, Mollinedo-Montaño FE, Rodriguez-Sanchez IP, Castañeda-Miranda R, Garza-Veloz I. Current Therapeutic Strategies in Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Oct 25;55(11):714. doi: 10.3390/medicina55110714.
  9. Choukroun J, Adda F, Schoeffler C, Vervelle A. Une opportunité en paro-implantologie: Le PRF. Implantodontie. 2001;42:55–62
  10. Agrawal M, Agrawal V. Platelet-Rich Fibrin and its Applications in Dentistry: A Review Article. National Journal of Medical and Dental Research. 2014;(2):51-58.
  11. Mazor Z, Horowitz RA, Del Corso M, Prasad HS, Rohrer MD, Dohan Ehrenfest DM. Sinus floor augmentation with simultaneous implant placement using Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material: a radiologic and histologic study at 6 months. J Periodontol. 2009 Dec;80(12):2056-64. doi: 10.1902/jop.2009.090252. 
  12. Toffler M, Toscano N, Holtzclaw D, Corso MD, Dohan Ehrenfest DM. Introducing Choukroun's platelet rich fibrin (PRF) to the reconstructive surgery milieu. J Implant Adv Clin Dent. 2009;1:21-30.
  13. Borie E, Oliví DG, Orsi IA, Garlet K, Weber B, Beltrán V, Fuentes R. Platelet-rich fibrin application in dentistry: a literature review. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 May 15;8(5):7922-9.
  14. Needleman I, Worthington HV, Giedrys-Leeper E, Tucker R. WITHDRAWN: Guided tissue regeneration for periodontal infra-bony defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 May 29;5(5):CD001724. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001724.pub3. 
  15. Singh S, Singh A, Singh S, Singh R. Application of PRF in surgical management of periapical lesions. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2013 Jan;4(1):94-9. doi: 10.4103/0975-5950.117825. 
  16. Jayadevan V, Gehlot PM, Manjunath V, Madhunapantula SV, Lakshmikanth JS. A comparative evaluation of Advanced Platelet-Rich Fibrin (A-PRF) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) as a Scaffold in Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of Traumatized Immature Non-vital permanent anterior teeth: A Prospective clinical study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2021 May 1;13(5):e463-e472. doi: 10.4317/jced.57902. 
  17. Ghanaati S, Herrera-Vizcaino C, Al-Maawi S, Lorenz J, Miron RJ, Nelson K, Schwarz F, Choukroun J, Sader R. Fifteen Years of Platelet Rich Fibrin in Dentistry and Oromaxillofacial Surgery: How High is the Level of Scientific Evidence? J Oral Implantol. 2018 Dec;44(6):471-492. doi: 10.1563/aaid-joi-D-17-00179.
  18. Al-Hamed FS, Mahri M, Al-Waeli H, Torres J, Badran Z, Tamimi F. Regenerative Effect of Platelet Concentrates in Oral and Craniofacial Regeneration. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2019 Sep 3;6:126. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2019.00126.
  19. Mauceri R, Panzarella V, Maniscalco L, Bedogni A, Licata ME, Albanese A, Toia F, Cumbo EMG, Mazzola G, Di Fede O, Campisi G. Conservative Surgical Treatment of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw with Er,Cr:YSGG Laser and Platelet-Rich Plasma: A Longitudinal Study. Biomed Res Int. 2018 Aug 19;2018:3982540. doi: 10.1155/2018/3982540.
  20. Tabassum S, Khan FR. Failure of endodontic treatment: The usual suspects. Eur J Dent. 2016 Jan-Mar;10(1):144-147. doi: 10.4103/1305-7456.175682.
  21. Natkin E, Oswald RJ, Carnes LI. The relationship of lesion size to diagnosis, incidence, and treatment of periapical cysts and granulomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984 Jan;57(1):82-94. doi: 10.1016/0030-4220(84)90267-6. 
  22. Cekici A, Kantarci A, Hasturk H, Van Dyke TE. Inflammatory and immune pathways in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2014 Feb;64(1):57-80. doi: 10.1111/prd.12002.
  23. Florencio-Silva R, Sasso GR, Sasso-Cerri E, Simões MJ, Cerri PS. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:421746. doi: 10.1155/2015/421746.
  24. von Arx T. Apical surgery: A review of current techniques and outcome. Saudi Dent J. 2011 Jan;23(1):9-15. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2010.10.004.
  25. Suárez-López Del Amo F, Monje A, Padial-Molina M, Tang Z, Wang HL. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:957518. doi: 10.1155/2015/957518.
  26. Abusrewil SM, McLean W, Scott JA. The use of Bioceramics as root-end filling materials in periradicular surgery: A literature review. Saudi Dent J. 2018 Oct;30(4):273-282. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2018.07.004.
  27. Patidar S, Kalra N, Khatri A, Tyagi R. Clinical and radiographic comparison of platelet-rich fibrin and mineral trioxide aggregate as pulpotomy agents in primary molars. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2017 Oct-Dec;35(4):367-373. doi: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_178_17.
  28. Hotwani K, Sharma K. Platelet rich fibrin - a novel acumen into regenerative endodontic therapy. Restor Dent Endod. 2014 Feb;39(1):1-6. doi: 10.5395/rde.2014.39.1.1. 
  29. Banchs F, Trope M. Revascularization of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis: new treatment protocol? J Endod. 2004 Apr;30(4):196-200. doi: 10.1097/00004770-200404000-00003.
  30. Youssef A, Ali M, ElBolok A, Hassan R. Regenerative endodontic procedures for the treatment of necrotic mature teeth: A preliminary randomized clinical trial. Int Endod J. 2022 Apr;55(4):334-346. doi: 10.1111/iej.13681. 
  31. Huang FM, Yang SF, Zhao JH, Chang YC. Platelet-rich fibrin increases proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells. J Endod. 2010 Oct;36(10):1628-32. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2010.07.004.
  32. Shivashankar VY, Johns DA, Vidyanath S, Kumar MR. Platelet Rich Fibrin in the revitalization of tooth with necrotic pulp and open apex. J Conserv Dent. 2012 Oct;15(4):395-8. doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.101926.
  33. Jayadevan V, Gehlot PM, Manjunath V, Madhunapantula SV, Lakshmikanth JS. A comparative evaluation of Advanced Platelet-Rich Fibrin (A-PRF) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) as a Scaffold in Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of Traumatized Immature Nonvital permanent anterior teeth: A Prospective clinical study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2021 May 1;13(5):e463-e472. doi: 10.4317/jced.57902.
  34. Dohan DM, Choukroun J, Diss A, Dohan SL, Dohan AJ, Mouhyi J, Gogly B. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part III: leucocyte activation: a new feature for platelet concentrates? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006 Mar;101(3):e51-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.07.010.
  35. Geeta IB, Galagali G, Kulkarni S, Suran P, Noushin F. A natural meliorate: revolutionary tissue engineering in endodontics. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Nov;7(11):2644-6. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/6915.3638. 
  36. Subash D, Shoba K, Aman S, Bharkavi SK. Revitalization of an Immature Permanent Mandibular Molar with a Necrotic Pulp Using Platelet-Rich Fibrin: A Case Report. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Nov;10(11):ZD21-ZD23. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/21793.8902. 
  37. Bakhtiar H, Esmaeili S, Fakhr Tabatabayi S, Ellini MR, Nekoofar MH, Dummer PM. Second-generation Platelet Concentrate (Platelet-rich Fibrin) as a Scaffold in Regenerative Endodontics: A Case Series. J Endod. 2017 Mar;43(3):401-408. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.10.016. 
  38. Dhiman M, Kumar S, Duhan J, Sangwan P, Tewari S. Effect of Platelet-rich Fibrin on Healing of Apicomarginal Defects: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Endod. 2015 Jul;41(7):985-91. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2015.04.004. 
  39. Lin LM, Ricucci D, von Arx T. Guided tissue regeneration in endodontic surgery: Principle, efficacy, and complications. In: Complications in Endodontic Surgery. Springer -Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2014:117-188.
  40. Sladek RE, Filoche SK, Sissons CH, Stoffels E. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms with a nonthermal atmospheric plasma. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007;45(3):318-323. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02194.x
  41. Goree J, Liu B, Drake D, Stoffels E. Killing of S. mutans bacteria using a plasma needle at atmospheric pressure. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 2006;34(4):1317–1324. doi: 10.1109/TPS.2006.878431.
  42. Lu X, Cao Y, Yang P, Xiong Q, Xiong Z, et al. An RC Plasma Device for Sterilization of Root Canal of Teeth. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci. 2009;37:668-673.
  43. Hiremath H, Saikalyan S, Kulkarni SS, Hiremath V. Second-generation platelet concentrate (PRF) as a pulpotomy medicament in a permanent molar with pulpitis: a case report. Int Endod J. 2012 Jan;45(1):105-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2011.01973.x.
  44. Bains R, Bains VK, Loomba K, Verma K, Nasir A. Management of pulpal floor perforation and grade II Furcation involvement using mineral trioxide aggregate and platelet rich fibrin: A clinical report. Contemp Clin Dent. 2012 Sep;3(Suppl 2):S223-7. doi: 10.4103/0976-237X.101100.
  45. Meschi N, Castro AB, Vandamme K, Quirynen M, Lambrechts P. The impact of autologous platelet concentrates on endodontic healing: a systematic review. Platelets. 2016 Nov;27(7):613-633. doi: 10.1080/09537104.2016.1226497. 
  46. Metlerska J, Fagogeni I, Nowicka A. Efficacy of Autologous Platelet Concentrates in Regenerative Endodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review of Human Studies. J Endod. 2019 Jan;45(1):20-30.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.09.003. 
  47. Hiremath H, Gada N, Kini Y, Kulkarni S, Yakub SS, Metgud S. Single-step apical barrier placement in immature teeth using mineral trioxide aggregate and management of periapical inflammatory lesion using platelet-rich plasma and hydroxyapatite. J Endod. 2008 Aug;34(8):1020-4. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2008.05.004.
  48. Goyal L. Clinical effectiveness of combining platelet rich fibrin with alloplastic bone substitute for the management of combined endodontic periodontal lesion. Restor Dent Endod. 2014 Feb;39(1):51-5. doi: 10.5395/rde.2014.39.1.51. 
  49. Khetarpal A, Chaudhry S, Talwar S, Verma M. Endodontic management of open apex using MTA and platelet - rich fibrin membrane barrier: A newer matrix concept. J Clin Exp Dent. 2013 Dec 1;5(5):e291-4. doi: 10.4317/jced.51178. 
  50. Li Q, Pan S, Dangaria SJ, Gopinathan G, Kolokythas A, Chu S, Geng Y, Zhou Y, Luan X. Platelet-rich fibrin promotes periodontal regeneration and enhances alveolar bone augmentation. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:638043. doi: 10.1155/2013/638043. Epub 2013 Mar 26. Erratum in: Biomed Res Int. 2020 Feb 26;2020:1794206. 
  51. Mishra N, Narang I, Mittal N. Platelet-rich fibrin-mediated revitalization of immature necrotic tooth. Contemp Clin Dent. 2013 Jul;4(3):412-5. doi: 10.4103/0976-237X.118379. 
  52. Sundar JS, Varma KM, Kalyan Satish RK, Sajjan GS, Tanikonda R. A Biological Approach in Repair of Damaged Dental Pulp and Periapical Tissues using Platelet Rich Fibrin, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Laser Bio stimulation. IJSS Case Reports & Reviews. 2015;1(11):44-50.
  53. Woo SM, Kim WJ, Lim HS, Choi NK, Kim SH, Kim SM, Jung JY. Combination of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Platelet-rich Fibrin Promotes the Odontoblastic Differentiation and Mineralization of Human Dental Pulp Cells via BMP/Smad Signaling Pathway. J Endod. 2016 Jan;42(1):82-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2015.06.019.
  54. Shirbhate U, Bajaj P. Third-Generation Platelet Concentrates in Periodontal Regeneration: Gaining Ground in the Field of Regeneration. Cureus. 2022 Aug 16;14(8):e28072. doi: 10.7759/cureus.28072.
  55. Shivashankar VY, Johns DA, Vidyanath S, Sam G. Combination of platelet rich fibrin, hydroxyapatite and PRF membrane in the management of large inflammatory periapical lesion. J Conserv Dent. 2013 May;16(3):261-4. doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.111329.
  56. Nagaveni NB, Kumari KN, Poornima P, Reddy V. Management of an endo-perio lesion in an immature tooth using autologous platelet-rich fibrin: a case report. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2015 Jan-Mar;33(1):69-73. doi: 10.4103/0970-4388.149013.
  57. Kathuria A, Chaudhry S, Talwar S, Verma M. Endodontic management of single rooted immature mandibular second molar with single canal using MTA and platelet-rich fibrin membrane barrier: A case report. J Clin Exp Dent. 2011;3(5):e487-90.
  58. Bao M, Du G, Zhang Y, Ma P, Cao Y, Li C. Application of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Derivatives for Mandibular Third Molar Extraction Related Post-Operative Sequelae: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021 Dec;79(12):2421-2432. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2021.07.006. 
  59. Csifó-Nagy BK, Sólyom E, Bognár VL, Nevelits A, Dőri F. Efficacy of a new-generation platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: a randomized clinical trial. BMC Oral Health. 2021 Nov 15;21(1):580. doi: 10.1186/s12903-021-01925-1.
  60. Aboelela SAA, Atef M, Shawky M, Fattouh H. Ridge augmentation using autologous concentrated growth factors enriched bone graft matrix versus guided bone regeneration using native collagen membrane in horizontally deficient maxilla: A randomized clinical trial. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2022 Oct;24(5):569-579. doi: 10.1111/cid.13121.
  61. Simonpieri A, Choukroun J, Girard MO, Ouaknine T, Dohan D. [Immediate postextraction implantation: interest of the PRF.] Implantodontie. 2004;13:177-89. [Article in French].
  62. Sharma A, Aggarwal N, Rastogi S, Choudhury R, Tripathi S. Effectiveness of platelet-rich fibrin in the management of pain and delayed wound healing associated with established alveolar osteitis (dry socket). Eur J Dent. 2017 Oct-Dec;11(4):508-513. doi: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_346_16. 
  63. Alrayyes Y, Al-Jasser R. Regenerative Potential of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in Socket Preservation in Comparison with Conventional Treatment Modalities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2022 Jun;19(3):463-475. doi: 10.1007/s13770-021-00428-y.
  64. Liu YH, To M, Okudera T, Wada-Takahashi S, Takahashi SS, Su CY, Matsuo M. Advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) has an impact on the initial healing of gingival regeneration after tooth extraction. J Oral Biosci. 2022 Mar;64(1):141-147. doi: 10.1016/j.job.2021.11.001.
  65. Uyanık LO, Bilginaylar K, Etikan İ. Effects of platelet-rich fibrin and piezosurgery on impacted mandibular third molar surgery outcomes. Head Face Med. 2015 Jul 26;11:25. doi: 10.1186/s13005-015-0081-x. 
  66. Suárez-López Del Amo F, Monje A. Efficacy of biologics for alveolar ridge preservation/reconstruction and implant site development: An American Academy of Periodontology best evidence systematic review. J Periodontol. 2022 Dec;93(12):1827-1847. doi: 10.1002/JPER.22-0069.
  67. Güvenç S, Durmuşlar MC, Ballı U. The Effects of Injectable Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Implant Stability. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2022 Nov-Dec;37(6):1145-1150. doi: 10.11607/jomi.9629.
  68. Gupta N, Agarwal S. Advanced-PRF: Clinical evaluation in impacted mandibular third molar sockets. J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021 Feb;122(1):43-49. doi: 10.1016/j.jormas.2020.04.008.
  69. Girish Rao S, Bhat P, Nagesh KS, Rao GH, Mirle B, Kharbhari L, Gangaprasad B. Bone regeneration in extraction sockets with autologous platelet rich fibrin gel. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2013 Mar;12(1):11-6. doi: 10.1007/s12663-012-0370-x. 
  70. Gürbüzer B, Pikdöken L, Tunali M, Urhan M, Küçükodaci Z, Ercan F. Scintigraphic evaluation of osteoblastic activity in extraction sockets treated with platelet-rich fibrin. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 May;68(5):980-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2009.09.092. 
  71. Simon BI, Zatcoff AL, Kong JJ, O'Connell SM. Clinical and Histological Comparison of Extraction Socket Healing Following the Use of Autologous Platelet-Rich Fibrin Matrix (PRFM) to Ridge Preservation Procedures Employing Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft Material and Membrane. Open Dent J. 2009 May 20;3:92-9. doi: 10.2174/1874210600903010092.
  72. Simon BI, Gupta P, Tajbakhsh S. Quantitative evaluation of extraction socket healing following the use of autologous platelet-rich fibrin matrix in humans. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2011 Jun;31(3):285-95.
  73. Triveni MG, TarunKumar AB, Vinita Jain, Dhoom S Meh. Alveolar Ridge Preservation with -TCP Graft and PlateletRich Fibrin. Int J Oral Implant Clin Res. 2012;3:96-100.
  74. Liu K, Huang Z, Chen Z, Han B, Ouyang X. Treatment of periodontal intrabony defects using bovine porous bone mineral and guided tissue regeneration with/without platelet-rich fibrin: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2021 Nov;92(11):1546-1553. doi: 10.1002/JPER.20-0860.
  75. Masurkar DA, Jaiswal PG, Kale BV, Agrawal DR, Rathod A. Evaluation of PRF Membrane with Coronally Advanced Flap with and without Vertical Releasing Incisions for the Treatment of Gingival Recessions. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2023 Jan 1;24(1):29-34. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3468.
  76. Atieh MA, Alsabeeha NH, Payne AG, Ali S, Faggion CMJ, Esposito M. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: alveolar ridge preservation techniques for dental implant site development. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Apr 26;4(4):CD010176. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010176.pub3.
  77. Powell CA, Casarez-Quintana A, Zellner J, Al-Bayati O, Font K. The application of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in maxillary sinus augmentation. Clin Adv Periodontics. 2022 Dec;12(4):277-286. doi: 10.1002/cap.10216.
  78. Fujioka-Kobayashi M, Miron RJ, Hernandez M, Kandalam U, Zhang Y, Choukroun J. Optimized Platelet-Rich Fibrin With the Low-Speed Concept: Growth Factor Release, Biocompatibility, and Cellular Response. J Periodontol. 2017 Jan;88(1):112-121. doi: 10.1902/jop.2016.160443. 
  79. Farshidfar N, Amiri MA, Jafarpour D, Hamedani S, Niknezhad SV, Tayebi L. The feasibility of injectable PRF (I-PRF) for bone tissue engineering and its application in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction: From bench to chairside. Biomater Adv. 2022 Mar;134:112557. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2021.112557.
  80. Anilkumar K, Geetha A, Umasudhakar, Ramakrishnan T, Vijayalakshmi R, Pameela E. Platelet-rich-fibrin: A novel root coverage approach. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2009 Jan;13(1):50-4. doi: 10.4103/0972-124X.51897.
  81. Kobayashi E, Flückiger L, Fujioka-Kobayashi M, Sawada K, Sculean A, Schaller B, Miron RJ. Comparative release of growth factors from PRP, PRF, and advanced PRF. Clin Oral Investig. 2016 Dec;20(9):2353-2360. doi: 10.1007/s00784-016-1719-1.
  82. Wang X, Zhang Y, Choukroun J, Ghanaati S, Miron RJ. Effects of an injectable platelet-rich fibrin on osteoblast behavior and bone tissue formation in comparison to platelet-rich plasma. Platelets. 2018 Jan;29(1):48-55. doi: 10.1080/09537104.2017.1293807.
  83. Gülşen U, Şentürk MF. Effect of platelet rich fibrin on edema and pain following third molar surgery: a split mouth control study. BMC Oral Health. 2017 Apr 24;17(1):79. doi: 10.1186/s12903-017-0371-8.
  84. Ahuja A, Ahuja V, Saha A, Singhal A, Priya T, Bhattacharjee A. Effectiveness of Gelatin Sponge Along with i-PRF in Endodontically Involved Tooth with Grade II Furcation Defects: A Clinical and Radiographic Study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2022 Dec 1;23(12):1199-1202. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3449.
  85. Choukroun J, Diss A, Simonpieri A, Girard MO, Schoeffler C, Dohan SL, Dohan AJ, Mouhyi J, Dohan DM. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part V: histologic evaluations of PRF effects on bone allograft maturation in sinus lift. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006 Mar;101(3):299-303. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.07.012. 
  86. Zumarán CC, Parra MV, Olate SA, Fernández EG, Muñoz FT, Haidar ZS. The 3 R's for Platelet-Rich Fibrin: A "Super" Tri-Dimensional Biomaterial for Contemporary Naturally-Guided Oro-Maxillo-Facial Soft and Hard Tissue Repair, Reconstruction and Regeneration. Materials (Basel). 2018 Jul 26;11(8):1293. doi: 10.3390/ma11081293.

Download Article
Received September 9, 2023.
Accepted November 1, 2023.
©2023 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.