Palatal Rugae Pattern in Adolescents of Southeastern Kosovo with Class I, II, III Malocclusions According to Angle’s Classification

Miranda Sejdiu Abazi, Zlatko Georgiev, Saranda Sejdiu Sadiku, Mirand N. Heta, Arben Abazi

For citation: Abazi MS, Georgiev Z, Sadiku SS, Heta MN, Abazi A. Palatal Rugae Patterns in Adolescents of Southeastern Kosovo with Class I, II, III Malocclusions According to Angle’s Classification. International Journal of Biomedicine. 2024;14(1):141-147. doi:10.21103/Article14(1)_OA22
Originally published March 1, 2024


Background: Palatal rugae, or plicae palatinae, are uniquely designed structures, well-formed, asymmetric, irregular mucosal folds suited in the anterior part of the hard palate. Palatoscopy, or the analysis of the palatal rugae pattern, is a simple, low-cost, non-invasive, innovative, and highly sensitive technique that can be successfully used in stomatology. This study aimed to analyze the palatal rugae pattern among an adolescent sample of the Albanian population in Kosovo, to determine the most prevalent palatal rugae pattern in both genders in association with Class I, II, and III malocclusions according to Angle’s classification.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 adolescents (50 males and 50 females) aged from 12 to 18 were randomly selected from schools in southeastern Kosovo. All subjects were divided into classes of malocclusion according to Angle’s classification (Class I, Class II, and Class III). The rugae patterns were classified based on shape, unification, and length according to the Thomas and Kotze classification.
In the present study, the palatal rugae pattern in Class I, II and III malocclusions show no significant difference between female and male subjects. In Class I malocclusion, the straight pattern was dominant in female subjects, and the wavy pattern was dominant in male subjects. The straight pattern was dominant in males and females with Class II malocclusion. In Class III malocclusion, the wavy pattern was dominant in female subjects, and the curved pattern was dominant in male subjects. The study showed that male subjects were at slightly higher risk for having Class I malocclusion and slightly lower risk for having Class II and Class III malocclusions than female subjects.
Conclusion: This study provides essential information regarding the dominant palatal rugae pattern among Albanian adolescents of southeastern Kosovo with Class I, II, and III malocclusions according to Angle’s classification.

palatoscopy • palatal rugae • malocclusions • Albanian population
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Received November 27, 2023.
Accepted January 8, 2024.
©2024 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.