Effects Inhalation of Kerosene and Naphtha Fumes on Some Blood Indices in Rats

Aya Ammar Kadum, Zaid Makki AL-Hakkak

For citation: Kadum AA, AL-Hakkak ZM. Effects Inhalation of Kerosene and Naphtha Fumes on Some Blood Indices in Rats. International Journal of Biomedicine. 2024;14(2):300-304. doi:10.21103/Article14(2)_OA11
Originally published June 5, 2024


Background: Multiple studies, including both humans and animals, have demonstrated that gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel exhaust emissions include chemical components harmful to the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of kerosene and naphtha vapors on several blood parameters in rats. 
Methods and Results: The study was conducted on 10–12-week-old male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) (n=20) weighing 150–200g. The experimental rats were categorized into two groups, each including five animals. The rats were exposed to kerosene and naphtha vapors for 15, 30, and 45 days, with six hours of daily exposure. Two control groups of animals, each including five animals, were exposed to room air. One group of rats was allowed to inhale the vapors emitted by the evaporating kerosene. Another group underwent an identical process for the naphtha vapors. Both groups of animals were exposed to daily vapors for six hours, from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., six days a week, for three different durations: 15, 30, and 45 days.  Blood samples were tested for hematological indices using a Cell Dyn Ruby Hematology Analyzer (Abbott, USA). On days 15, 30, and 45 of the experiment, rats exposed to kerosene and naphtha vapors had an increase in the total number of leukocytes, an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes, and a decrease in the percentage of neutrophils, compared to the control group (P<0.05 in all cases). At 15, 30, and 45 days of the experiment, the total number of RBCs increased significantly (P<0.05 in all cases). In addition, under the influence of kerosene and naphtha vapors, a higher level of PCV and MCV was noted at 30 and 45 days of the experiment, compared to the control group. At the same time, at the indicated stages of the experiment, there was a significant decrease in MCH and MCHC, compared to the control group (P<0.05 in all cases).
Conclusion: exposure to naphtha and kerosene vapor significantly affects a variety of WBC and RBC parameters, exhibiting toxic effects.

white blood cell • red blood cell • kerosene • naphtha • toxic effects

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Received February 11, 2024.
Accepted March 23, 2024.
©2024 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.